Brandish St. Farm, C17 Cross-Passage House & Farm Buildings
Two storey single pile three cell house with two cross-passages, rear two storey wing with outbuilding continuing in northwards direction. Single storey front addition with hipped roof over probable original cross-passage door. Single storey rear lean-tos on wall of house and one and a half storey lean-to on west wall of wing. Single storey outbuilding butts onto west gable wall. A single storey gabled porch shields the present front door. Gable-ended ridged roof, the front elevation with an extra row of tiles over the kitchen where the front wall is slightly advanced. The wing roof and outbuilding ridge are at the same level, the southeast window a slightly raked dormer. The front extension is fully hipped, with the ridge butting onto the farmhouse just below the eaves. The rear lean-tos have singe pitch roofs, the wing lean-to enters the wing roof above the eaves, this continues down as a catslide over the woodshed on the west wall. There are three rear lateral stacks, the west and central ones are external, with raked shoulders and square uppers. The east stack is a late addition and contained within the rebuilt wall. The only front stack serves the addition and is set lightly out on its east side. The flue for the old boiler survives through the east pitch of north outbuilding roof. Roofs: house triple V tiles with collared ridge tiles. Wing and outbuilding double roman tiles with collared ridge tiles on wing, plain on outbuilding. Front extension plain tiles with flared hip tiles, plain ridge. Porch fish scale tiles with collared ridge tiles, lined underneath with horizontal beaded boards and supported by scissor truss at front. West lean-tos large slates. Wing lean-tos asbestos slates. Walls of house roughly squared and coursed purple and green waterworn stone, with some red sandstone, brick quoins, jambs and ground floor arched lintels. First floor lintels wood. West end of house ( kitchen) much smaller uncoursed purple and green rubble stone, roughly squared in quoins. Rear wall rendered at east end to east side of west lateral stack. Front extension mainly larger rubble stone, some roughly squared, purple and green. Brick quoins and jambs. Set on slate damp course on smaller rubble stone plinth. Wooden seat along front of rectangular bay window. Eaves each side of window supported by curved wooden bracket. Porch, two posts support front scissor truss and wall-plates, trellis work each side about 1.25m high. Large slate and stone flags form floor. Wing, rendered on east side, lean-to covers west side. Southeast window in blocked doorway. Outbuilding, smallish rubble stone, mainly purple and green but some red sandstone. Segmental stone arches over ground floor openings. Central east window ( to cottage kitchen) in blocked doorway. North elevation with rubble stone steps to loft door, oil tank balanced on concrete block piers and built-up step. West elevation with one brick jamb to woodshed door and brick jamb to opening 0.1m wide from lean-to, function unknown. Rear lean-to on house, random rubble stone with brick jambs and quoins, limewashed. Small lean-to on the east side similar, east side rear painted. Wing lean-to, rendered and limewashed, slate-hung over small lean-to holding stairs. Probably originated as a late 16c/ 17c three or four cell cross- passage house, with dining room the hall, having a rear chimney which still remains, and lower room ( kitchen) now including cross-passage, its west partition removed. As the roof is 19c any question of smoke-blackening is insoluble, but from the thickness of the earlier rear wall it is more likely to be post-medieval. The west rear wing wall, which has a pronounced batter, could possibly be medieval and part of any earlier building aligned down the slope. On the c. 1896 plans (as existing) a front stack is shown on sitting room A with a gable stack and spiral staircase in the eastern half of the room, which then extended as far as the road, projecting beyond the wing. The present kitchen is also shown with a fireplace and rear oven. The division of rooms shown on the plan suggests the two eastern fireplaces may have been added in this period. The late 19c saw major renovation of the house under Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, XIth baronet. East end and most of front wall rebuilt, roof retimbered and tiled, probably replacing thatch, the west end had a half- hip. The east gable and front fireplaces were removed, and a rear stack built in the new rear wall to sitting room A. Stairs were removed from the northeast corners of sitting room A and dining room, the passage ( entrance hall B) between sitting room A and dining room was widened and a new staircase inserted there. Early/ mid 20c, flying lavatory inserted to rear of first floor landing. Bathroom inserted in northwest corner of first floor. Pump house on front of kitchen rebuilt as small office, with fireplace built against front wall of house. Between 1987-89 holiday cottage formed by doors at rear of entrance hall B and in east wall of utility room being blocked. Stairs in lean-to on exterior of rear wall included in new cottage with wing and part of outhouse. Flying lavatory removed. Ash-house in rear yard also demolished. Important Features: External appearance. Passible 16c/ 17c open fireplace with bake oven, dining room. Late 16c/ 17c beam in kitchen. Parquet floors dining room and sitting room E ( late 19c). Tiled floors kitchen, entrance hall F, back lobby ( late 19c). Panelled doors with brass furniture. Front door with brass bell-pull. Kitchen rear door ( D2). Plank and batton doors. Sitting room E seat. Casement windows. In a good state of repair. Outbuildings: Poultry House and Pigsty, now store: Single storey gable ended building butting onto west wall of farmhouse, with pitching door in west gable. Originally with two openings on both north and south sides, the more westerly ones infilled, paired opening in west end wall. Roof double roman tiles with matching ridge, one glass tile in rear pitch. Waterworn rubble stone walls, roughly squared in quoins and jambs. Blocked doorways in north and south walls filled with rubble stone. On the 1841 Selworthy Tithe map and all subsequent maps, 18c/ early 19c. Shown on the c. 1896 plans as an existing fowl-house and pigsties, with possible conversion to fowl-house and coal shed ( envelope 40 in Holnicote Estate Office). Plan of 1960 ( roll 124 in Holnicote Estate Office) shows the southeast quarter with a door cut through from the house and the other walls marked remove. This has been done, but not finished off. Important features: external appearance, cobbled floor, mullion window in west gable, possibly reused from house. In a fair state of repair, doors are poor. Wing, Outbuilding and Lean-to, now holiday cottage: The cottage occupies the two storey wing of the house and the west lean-to, with the adjacent ground floor room of the rear outbuilding taken into the cottage as its kitchen. The roof ridge runs back from the house roof, the lean-to roof enters above the west eaves of the wing, and continues as a catslide against the lean-to Log Shed The roof, walls and chimney are described with the farmhouse. Rear wing added to farmhouse with north axial stack 17c/ 18c, this may have been used for cider, butchery and other activities or it may originally have been a wing parlour. The thick west wall, with a pronounced batter, suggests an early date, the east wall is probably a rebuild. The connection to the house has been altered, the wing may once have opened directly from the house. As the wall between house and wing has been rebuilt ( late 19c) this cannot be proved one way or the other. C. 1896 shown on the as existing plans as a cellar on the ground floor with a fireplace and a door with the outbuilding. The first floor is shown as a single bedroom with a fireplace. The lean-to is a dairy, with apple room above. On the proposed alterations plan, with August 1896 written on it, the ground floor is shown as a cellar, with larder partitioned off against the rear wall of the house. On the first floor a small bedroom is cut out of the wing, with the rear wall of the house removed and a new partition inserted 1m into the house bedroom J. This new wall was built but it was only moved 0.5m to the south. An internal stack provided flues for the bedrooms to north and south of it. A cottage, not connected internally to the farmhouse, was formed by converting the cellar and larder to a sitting room and bedroom, the diary into a utility room, and taking in the cider cellar of the outbuilding as the kitchen. On the first floor the connection to the house was blocked off and the apple store is now the bathroom. Entrance is from the west directly into the kitchen or into the utility room. The stairs on the rear wall of the house were retained to serve the cottages, the access door from the entrance hall was blocked. Important features: external appearance, possible open fireplace in room 2B, beam in room 2B ( 17c/18c), room 2c 19c beam, flag floor in room 2D, four and six panel doors and brass furniture, casement windows. In good state of repair. Log Store/ General Store: Two celled, lofted outbuilding butting onto the north wall of the wing, roof continuous with gable at north end where a short flight of external steps give access to the loft door. The building is cut into the ground at this end. Flue from old boiler ( removed) emerges through east pitch of roof, conical cap over. Modern flue from Rayburn is set at the junction of the wing and outbuilding west pitches close to the wing chimney, square metal side-flues cap over it. Roof of double roman tiles with matching ridge tiles. Extra row of tiles along east eaves. One glass tile in each pitch. Walls smallish green and purple rubble stone, with some red sandstone. Larger squared stones in quoins. Segmental stone arches over ground floor and north openings. Stone steps to loft door with oil tank resting on built-up step and concrete block piers. One brick jamb to west elevation doorway. Mid 19c, shown on the 1876 Holnicote Estate map, the 1889 OS Somerset, sheet XXXIV.2 and all subsequent maps. Not marked on the 1841 Selworthy Tithe map. Marked on the c. 1896 plan as pound house ( now the cottage kitchen) and cellar, with corn loft over. On the suggested alterations ( plan dated August 1896) the ground floor is the same but the loft is marked store-room. In 1989 south ground floor room included, with wing, as part of the holiday accommodation known as Orchard Cottage. Important features: external appearance, windows in loft ( mid 19c), roof structure ( late 19c), grain bins in loft ( mid/ late 19c). In a fair state of repair, water comes in where roof meets wing, runs down outside of wing stack. Log Shed: Lean-to on west wall of lean-to on wing. Catslide roof continued down over building from wing lean-to. Roof asbestos slates over walls of weatherboards on timber uprights. In a good state of repair. Slaughter House, store: Small rectangular building with double pitch roof, gable-ended, now isolated in the orchard west of the farmhouse but when built set slightly back from a long range of low buildings used for poultry, pigs, calves etc. Set-pan copper on outside of east gable wall, brick support, needs attention. Probably used for providing hot water and for boiling down fat etc. Flue pipe used to be attached to gable of building. Walls large pieces of river stone set randomly, brick quoins and jambs, squared stones set in spaces between bricks where quoin and jamb are close ( see photograph). Round hole ( drainpipe) in each gable. Shown on 1929 revised 2nd edition O.S. Somerset sheet XXXIV.6, but not on 1903 map. Built as a two cell unit with a small enclosure in front. The set-pan copper on the east end was probably once enclosed in a second building. Important feature: external appearance with set-pan copper on east end. In a fair state of repair, west door hinge should be screwed on. Set-pan copper pointing poor, lid needed for it. Root House, now disused: Rectangular building, cut into ground between lane bank and hedge and field, to give a cool even temperature for the storage of roots. Walls largish rubble stone, waterworn, with a whitish mortar that has a lot of inclusions in it. Walls standing to nearly 2m, lower at south end, higher at bank. Front quoins rounded. Early 19c, possibly shown on 1841 Selworthy Tithe map and 1876 Holnicote Estate map, a building is marked in approximately the right position. On 1889 OS Somerset sheet XXXIV.6. Became disused mid 20c, roof went. Important feature: walls. Linhay: An attractive and useful farm building which with the Cartshed and Stable form an L-shaped group protecting the cobbled and walled yard in front. Single storey open-fronted south facing building with yard in front. Part of west wall angled to respect lane. Roof with half-hip at west end, continuous over Cartshed on east. Front with two rectangular pillars supporting roof plate. Roof slate with red ridge tiles, cement fillets on half-hips, flashing in valley between linhay range and stable. Walls mainly red sandstone rubble with some grey/ purple waterworn stone. Upper part of rear red sandstone, as if possibly rebuilt. Rear door cut through with inserted jambs including some brick. Yard wall rubble stone with rough cement capping. Wooden gate hung on east jamb, off the pins when recorded. Not apparently marked on 1876 Holnicote Estate map but position obscured by later pencil marks. On 1889 OS Somerset sheet XXXIV.6. Shown on the plan of the farm drawn up late in the century between 1876 and 1889 as cattle shed with hay loft over. Built before the Wagon House in the barn yard was altered ( evidence on 1876/89 plan). Important features: listed grade II with stable, external appearance, roof structure. In a good state of repair. Cart Linhay, now machinery and fuel store: North facing single storey cartshed with roof continuing from Linhay to west. Rear wall continuing to east, forming north wall of Stable, with door to loft in gable. Slightly higher ridge of Stable finishes just behind ( south of) ridge of Linhay and Cart Linhay. Cowshed, which was built later, butts onto east end, which has been rebuilt. Blocked doorway in south elevation to yard, internally only part of this is visible suggesting the floor level has been raised. Roof as above, slate with red ridge tiles. Walls mainly grey/ green waterworn stone rubble. Segmental arch over blocked doorway to yard, blocking stone on exterior, concrete block on interior. Gable of Stable on south wall. East wall rebuilt with concrete block to ridge of Cowshed, space above to this ridge filled with weatherboard. North side with one square timber post surviving supporting central truss. West truss resting on acro-prop. East truss resting on beam running into east wall where stonework returns, inserted A-frame near east wall rests on the end of the beam. Not marked on 1876 Holnicote Estate map, but shown on 1876/89 plan of farm and 1889 OS Somerset sheet XXXIV.6. Built with the Linhay and Stable. East wall rebuilt mid/ late 20c with concrete blocks. Important features: listed grade II with Linhay and Stable, external appearance, roof structure. In a fair state of repair, the east end support of the front is a bit peculiar!. Stable, now stockhouse: One and a half storey gable-ended, butting onto Cartshed and forming east side of small yard. Roof slate with roll-top black ridge tiles. Walls grey-green and purple rubble stone mixed with red sandstone. East side rendered halfway up with mangers surviving along wall, sockets for roof timbers of removed lean-to shippon visible under eaves. Top part of wall whitened. Segmental stone arches above south pitching door and west ground floor openings. South doorway with black sill bricks. Front ( west) wall with blocked doorway, wood lintel, where lean-to removed, and south opening part blocked to form window. Not marked on 1876 Holnicote Estate map but shown on farm plan drawn between 1876 and 1889 as stable with six boxes and hay loft over. Shown on 1889 OS Somerset sheet XXXIV.2. Small building shown in angle between Cart Linhay and this building, removed c. 1985. Lean-to on rear ( east) elevation, evidence not clear as to when added, removed soon after 1985. Important features: listed garde II with Linhay and Cart Linhay, external appearance, shutter opening in loft, wooden mangers and saddle trees. In a quite good state of repair, door to south end of loft needed. Shed for Young Beasts/ Cowshed, now workshop: Single storey gable-ended building running east from Cart Linhay, with south wall in line but as building is wider the north wall is advanced. Slate roof with collared ridge tiles. Ridge lower than range to west and offset to north. Walls mainly purple and grey/ green waterworn stone, northwest corner rebuilt. Bank removed from northeast corner and east side to give access. West wall inserted cartshed of concrete block. New brick jambs to east pair of doors inserted late 1980s. Three south doorways, with brick jambs, blocked with rubble stone and window inserted in each. Doorway against wall of Stable blocked with brick, used to lead into lean-to shippon. Late 19c, on 1889 OS Somerset sheet XXXIV.2. Added - probably by Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, XIth baronet ( a note on the reverse of the plan made by Lady Anne Acland in 1975 confirms it is his handwriting) - to plan of farm made between 1876 and 1889, therefore later than other buildings shown. Noted as shed for young beasts. Yard formed at same time. Converted to cowshed with concrete standings, gutter, metal partitions, mangers, walls rendered to eaves mid 20c, probably for T.T. regulations. Building along east wall of Stable similar. Converted late 1980s to machinery workshop. Ground to east and northeast removed to give access right round group of buildings. Important feature: external appearance. In a fair state of repair. Stable and Harness Room: Single storey two cell building with gable ends and short flue on southwest corner. Three pairs of small ventilation gablets in ridge tiles. Slate roof with red ridge tiles, three with tiny ventilation gablets on both pitches. Walls random, mainly quoined, red sandstone, all largish pieces laid randomly. Brick quoins and jambs, rounded on main doorway. Louvred ventilation slit in each gable. In stable two cast iron water troughs set on floor; harness room: three saddle trees and row of hooks for harness. Early 20c, not shown on the 1903 OS Somerset sheet XXXIV.2 but in the 1929 revised edition. Built on a plot marked garden on the farm plan drawn up between 1876 and 1889. Very unspoilt and still used. Important features: external appearance with stack and ridge vents, internal partitions and doors, stove, non-slip stable floor, stable features such as water troughs, saddle trees and hooks. In a good state of repair. Cattle Sheds, now stockhouse: Long single storey gable-ended building, with roof lifted slightly over main entrance from yard as a raked dormer. Forms west side of yard, with Threshing Barn along south side and Wagon House on east. The lane runs along the north end, separated from the yard by a wall. Roof slate with collared ridge tiles. Two 2 x 1 rooflights in west pitch, also single pane set lower down. Walls mixture of red sandstone and grey/ green waterworn stone. The east wall has a lot of red sandstone which suggests a late 19c/ early 20c rebuild, probably altering the linhay part to its present form. Brick jambs and quoins. North and west doorways with wood lintels. South opening with concrete block jambs, vertical boards infilling gable above. Early 19c, shown on 1841 Selworthy Tithe map and all subsequent maps. Late 19c, probably reroofed when the rest of the alterations to the farm were done. Shown on the farm plan drawn between 1876 and 1889 as cattle sheds with straw loft over. The northern half of the east elevation is shown as a linhay-type building with two square posts, one round and one rectangular pillar supporting the roof. There are two partitions marked across the building, a stone one about halfway and a slighter, probably timber, division to the north of it. Late 19c/ early 20c roof retimbered and slated, loft probably removed at the same time as the kingpost trusses do not lend themselves to use of a loft space. Lean-to built on west elevation, early 20c ( on 1929 OS Somerset sheet XXXIV.2). Late 20c, large opening cut in south end to allow tractor access, ramp built from yard. In the 1980s lean-to on west side removed. Important features: external appearance, king post roof. In a fair state of repair - the south truss is broken. Threshing Barn, now barn/ grain store: Large rectangular building, gable-ended, having two pairs of threshing doors, all with cheeks and roof extended down over them. Roundhouse on centre part of rear, south elevation. Wagon House butts onto the east end of the north elevation, forming the east side of the yard, the Threshing Barn the south and the Cattle Sheds the west. The north side of the yard has a stone rubble wall separating it from the lane. Yard now concreted, was cobbled. Engine House on west end of south elevation. Cottage garden wall curves round and butts on rear south end of east wall. Roof of slate with collared ridge tiles. Walls of north elevation all red sandstone, random rubble construction, with larger squared stones in quoins and jambs. South side with red and grey/ green stone mixed, quoins and jambs of roughly squared stone. The west elevation has a blocked doorway and three sockets for roof timbers for a lean-to. Round metal drive shaft and pulleys run along southwest end of barn just above eaves height, from opposite Roundhouse, where supported by bracket on timber post, to dragon beam across southwest corner. Six pulley wheels of varying sizes on shaft. 18c/ early 19c, shown on the 1809-12 Holnicote Survey and mentioned in Farm House, Barn, Court and Outhouses. On the 1841 Selworthy Tithe map and all subsequent maps. Roundhouse added to centre part of south elevation mid 19c. 20c re-roofed, probably second half of century. Late 20c, floor concreted, east threshing floor and north part of west replaced with concrete. Important features: listed grade II with roundhouse, external appearance, barn doors, remains of west threshing floor ( 14 planks), remains of barn machinery. In a good state of repair - some door hinges need attention. Engine House, now store: Lean-to on west end of south elevation of Threshing Barn, small lean-to between cheek and main part of building. Roof of triple V tiles, small lean-to corrugated iron. Walls of brick. Early 20c, not shown on 1903 but on 1929 OS Somerset Sheet XXXIV.6. In a fair state of repair - window needs mending or the lean-to should be removed. Roundhouse, now dog kennel: Round single storey building, butting onto Threshing Barn between two doorways on south side, conical roof of thatch. On north side the roof runs under barn eaves and gutter, some water problems exist. Walls smallish rubble stone. Southwest entrance widened, west jamb a rebuild. Lintel across each opening carried rafters, over enlarged opening also supports a truss blade. Some ribbon pointing which does not help the building, this should be removed and lime mortar used. Chain with ring hangs round crossing of scissor blades. Three openings in threshing barn wall ( one blocked with rubble stone, one open and the third with a top-hung shutter) and a large funnel-shaped hopper are all that remain as hints to the former function of the roundhouse. Mid/ late 19c, not shown on the 1841 Selworthy Tithe map but on the farm plan drawn up between 1876 and 1889. The 1876 Holnicote Estate map seems to copy the Tithe map and not necessarily show small additions to buildings, the map evidence suggests c. 1880 but this seems late to add a building of this function and shape to a barn. Sir Thomas, Xth baronet, and mid 19c seem a more likely answer. Reroofed mid/ late 20c, replacing timbers, but thatch still used as cover. The previous roof had a ridge running into the barn roof, with leaded valleys at the junction. Important Features: listed building Grade II with threshing barn, external appearance with thatched roof, openings in barn wall. In a good state of repair. Wagon House, now machinery store: Long rectangular building forming east side of yard immediately south of lane running through farm. South end butting onto threshing barn and dependant on it for roof support, overlapping barn doorway roof. The southwest eaves are cut back three rows of slates over the opening from the yard. Slate roof with collared ridge tiles. Walls uncoursed rubble stone, brick quoin at south end of west wall. Gables part weatherboarded. Originally an early 19c linhay forming the east side of the yard, with the Threshing Barn to the south. The west side was open to the yard and supported by three round columns ( shown on c. 1896 plan of farmstead, possibly drawn up in the 1880s, on the line of the east cheek of the threshing doors). Extended into yard late 19c and west wall built to form stockhouse or machinery shed, space between shed and barn shown on 1889 and 1903 Somerset sheet XXXIV.6. Kingpost roof probably dating from this alteration. Mid 20c, space between building and Barn infilled and A-frame truss added, north wall removed so open to lane. Lean-to on west side of corrugated iron. In the late 20c lean-to removed ( c. 1985 on change of tenancy). Important Features: external appearance, kingpost roof trusses. In a good state of repair. Dutch Barn: Eight bay Dutch barn with ridged roof and both ends filled in. Lean-to ( five bay) on south side with roof at slighter pitch, coming from just under the eaves of the main building. West, east and part of south sides covered, central south upper part covered, east end of south open. Supports do not match those of Dutch barn. Roof of Dutch barn corrugated iron with iron ridge, roof rotting in places. Lean-to of corrugated iron. Walls of Dutch barn square timber uprights along north and south sides with metal supports front and back at base, some timber rotting. West end weatherboarded, lowest two boards missing. East as west but more boards missing and wet getting in. Lean-to, west end - corrugated iron, also on west end of south face. Central part south side vertical planking for two bays. Corrugated iron on top part of east bay and east side, on latter it is in a poor state and needs renewing. Six uprights possibly railway rails. Marked on 1929 OS revised second edition Somerset sheet XXXIV.6. Lean-to added on south side mid 20c, shown on OS sheet SS 9046- 9146 ( 1972). Important feature: this barn is now over sixty years old and still functioning well. In a fair state of repair - roof and east end need attention as wet is getting in. Machinery Shed: Two bay single pitch roof open-fronted shed for storage of machinery and/ or hay and straw. West half of north face also open. Roof corrugated iron on purlins. Walls large round timbers supporting blades, corrugated iron on horizontal rails. Mid 20c, on 1972 OS map SS 9046-9146. In a fair state of repair. Portal Framed Covered Yard: Portal framed covered yard manufactured by Crendon Concrete Co. Ltd. Roof of corrugated asbestos with twelve clear corrugated pvc lights, on concrete prefabricated frames. Added lean-to supports of wood. Walls, two short lengths of concrete block south of central passage. North side horizontal planks inside, plywood outside with Yorkshire boarding above, similar for north end of east and west sides. Other partitions tubular steel gates which clamp together. South side garden wall, approximately 4m high, building not fixed to it. Built 1973, 1980 lean-to added on north side, continuing line of roof. Silage clamp against lean-to north wall. In a good state of repair. Lean-to Store, now disused: Small lean-to in corner of garden walls immediately northeast of Covered Yard. Roof double roman tiles, some broken, some missing. Walls part-round timbers on wood frame, some broken. Falling down.